Cooking, cooking or cooking (lat. Culīnāria <ars> "kitchen <craft>"; from culīna "kitchen") is a human activity in cooking. Includes a set of technologies, equipment and recipes. Cooking is a combination of cooking methods from minerals and products of plant and animal origin of the most varied food necessary for human life and health.

Compliance with certain rules when cooking is called technology. The methods of cooking and the ingredients themselves vary widely from different countries, nations, and social groups, called cuisine, and reflect the unique interrelationships of culture, economy, and traditions. Cooking in and of itself depends heavily on skill and on the education of the cook. To prepare tasty and healthy food, you must acquire certain knowledge of technology and skills in the culinary art of cooking.

Basic cooking methods


Heat treatment

the main way: bringing the product to readiness in large quantities of water;
priming: bringing the product to readiness in a small amount of liquid;
steam: bring the product to readiness by heating the liquid to form steam or boiling under increased pressure;
Roasting - roasting in the oven of a pre-boiled or boiled product;
Quenching (refers to the combined methods of heat treatment of products) - letting in the pre-fried or browned product with the addition of spices and liquid;


Chemical processing

Urination (Urine apples, lingonberries, etc.)




In terms of their value, the proteins that make up food are not the same. Some of them are close in their construction and chemical composition to the proteins of the human body, that is, they contain all the constituent parts (amino acids) necessary for the construction of these proteins; others are significantly different from them and therefore less valuable. Proteins with high nutritional value include proteins of meat, fish, milk, eggs, and proteins of certain vegetables. So, high-grade proteins are contained in potatoes, cabbage. The value of croup proteins is not the same. In terms of amino acid composition, proteins of oatmeal, rice, and buckwheat should be considered more valuable. In contrast, millet, semolina, pearl barley contain proteins that are characterized by relatively lower nutritional value. These grains can be enriched with missing ingredients (amino acids) at the expense of other foods rich in such substances. Thus, the nutritional value of wheat can be increased due to the amino acids contained in meat, milk, and also in various vegetables.



Fats, like carbohydrates, are the main sources of energy and determine mainly the caloric content of food. In addition, fats perform protective functions in relation to protein, since with a sufficient content of them in the body less protein is destroyed than with a lack of these substances. In animals and humans, fats can be deposited not only with an excess of them in the diet, but also when a sufficient or excessive amount of carbohydrates is included in the food. Consequently, fats in the body are built not only from the fat itself, but also from carbohydrates and protein.

Animal fats are considered more complete than vegetable fats, since most animal fats carry specific vitamins.

Milk fats are most useful for humans, such as butter and ghee, cream fats, sour cream. But other fats, including margarine and vegetable oil, are valuable food products because they have a high calorie content and good digestibility.



Carbohydrates are especially rich in products of plant origin: cereals, vegetables, fruits. From animal products, some carbohydrates are found in milk (in the form of milk sugar).

Carbohydrates can be found in foods in the form of starch or in the form of various sugars, such as fructose; Both those and other carbohydrates are well absorbed in the human body; the difference between them is that pure sugar dissolves quickly in water and is instantly absorbed into the blood (so-called fast carbohydrates), while starch and fructose under the action of digestive juices undergo a gradual breakdown and enter the blood not immediately, but over a long period period (so-called. Slow carbohydrates).

Under special conditions, such as, for example, in cases of heart failure, with severe mental or physical fatigue, carbohydrates are required to be rapidly introduced into the body; in this case, sugar is needed, which is sometimes injected as glucose even directly into the blood (through a vein). In the normal state of the body, the main amount of carbohydrates is eaten in the form of starch and only a small part (60-100 g per day) in the form of sugar.



Vitamins are divided into groups according to their solubility: vitamin C and vitamins of group B are water soluble, vitamins A, D and E are soluble in fats and are called lipovitamins.

Vitamins are often called an additional factor of nutrition. This name does not correspond to the real value of vitamins: they are elements of food, as necessary as all other substances that make up the human body. It is known that in the absence of one or another vitamin in food, very serious violations of the activity of various organs and of the whole organism are observed. Such violations - avitaminosis, for individual vitamins are expressed in certain typical phenomena.

It is much more difficult to recognize and identify hypovitaminosis, that is, such violations, which are observed not in the complete absence, but with a lack of a vitamin in food.

When studying the physiological significance of vitamins, it becomes clear that their action is much more extensive than the prevention of a particular beriberi. All vitamins in their effects on the human body are dependent on one another. Therefore, the lack of one of them can disrupt the use of others.



Cleanliness and tidiness in the kitchen is the most important condition, the fulfillment of which largely determines the quality of the food prepared.

The best nutritious foods, if stored and prepared for cooking or frying, violating the requirements of hygiene and sanitation, can be harmful to health instead of good.

For example, if products are kept open in a damp, musty, or dirty room before cooking or frying, they will surely deteriorate: together with dust, bacteria will fall on them, which, multiplying rapidly, change the appearance, taste, and smell of food and make them unsuitable for cooking. Therefore, it is absolutely necessary that the kitchen premises, dishes and all kitchen utensils be kept extremely clean, so that the hands and clothes of the person preparing the food are clean.

The kitchen is cleaned daily in the morning or in the evening, and once a week it is necessary to clean it especially carefully: wash the stove and the floor, brush and wipe the walls, windows and doors, as much dust and dirt accumulates on them.

In addition to brushes and specially selected dishes (bucket, basin), soap, soda, as well as various detergents should be used to clean the kitchen.

If the apartment does not have a special garbage chute, it is necessary to have a bucket for dry food waste, sufficiently capacious, in good order and always closed with a lid with a handle or a wooden circle. The bottom of the bucket is best covered with a layer of ash or sand.

It is necessary to take out a bucket at least once a day, without leaving kitchen waste for the night, as in a warm room, especially in summer, they can become a source of contamination.

It is necessary to regularly (once every 5-10 days) wash the garbage can with a disinfectant solution (in extreme cases with kerosene). The space under the kitchen sink can be turned into a small wardrobe with a door and the bin can be stored in it, as well as other small items that serve for cleaning the room. It is most advisable to put garbage in a bucket with a folding lid and a foot pedal.

To protect against flies in the summertime, the kitchen windows are protected with a grid (or gauze) stretched over a light wooden frame inserted into the window casing.

The kitchen in no case should not simultaneously serve as a living space. Storing outer clothing and any other things not related to cooking is also unacceptable. Do not go into the kitchen in outerwear and outdoor shoes.

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